In the first half of the 19th century, Macedonia was still under the oppression of the Ottoman Empire. In this period, the Macedonian middle class appeared on the social scene. As it grew strong, the interest in the social and cultural sphere increased. The merchants were more and more interested in raising churches, they also supported the church painting and opening of the printing houses. Schools were opened in several cities: Skopje, Štip, Veles, Ohrid, Prilep and Kumanovo.
In the middle of the 19th, the first printing houses were opened, supported by respectable merchants. In 1838, in Solun (Salonica), Theodosie Sinaitski opened the first printing house, and in 1848, in Kavadarci, the one of Daskal Kamče was opened.
This period was prevailed by folk art, while the literary activities were on very low level, regarding the volume and achievement. The written literature appeared with the works of Joachim Krčovski and Kiril Pejčinović, which have religious-educational character.