Ottoman Turkish authority in Macedonia
Macedonia under Ottoman authority
Following the fall of Samoil's Empire, several tries were made to re-establishment of it, but unsuccessful and Macedonia was transformed into a and ordinary Byzantine province. The period of developed feudalism was characterized by constant struggle against Byzantine authorities and the rise of the Bogomila movement in Macedonia. At the end of the 11th century, the Byzantine Balkan territories were attacked by the Normans. Then the Crusaders penetrated Macedonia, and for a brief period it came under the rule of the mediaeval Serbian state and for the last only a little period had independence as a Kingdom of King Marko. At the end of the 14th century, after a famous battle at the River Marica, Macedonia came under Ottoman Turkish rule. The history of Macedonia in the period between the 15th and the 16th centuries was characterized by the establishment of the Timar-Spahi system and other forms of Ottoman feudal exploitation. Agriculture at this period was the basic source of live hood.
Efforts against the Ottoman authority
Alongside this economic exploitation the Macedonian people was religiously and ethically discriminated against, which may be seen from the concept of raya, which was a synonym for having no rights. For a long period Macedonia was subject to a dual domination: economically and politically to the Sultan's rule, and religiously to the rule of the Constantinople Patriarcharte. The struggle against feudal exploitation and Turkish rule in Macedonia took the form of repeated rebellions and insurrections, which later developed into organized ajduk strife (ajduts were outlaws opposed to the Turkish rule). In 1564-1565 the Mariovo-Prilep rebellion took place, and in the 17th century ajduk companies attacked Osmanli feudal property. In 1689, part of the Macedonian population organized an uprising known as the name of its leader Karpos. The economic and political situation in Macedonia further deteriorated. The weakening power of the central Ottoman authorities led to the rise of the power of big landowners and cruel feudal anarchy. The Empire's decline at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th was accompanied by the first emergence of capitalism in Macedonia and the intensifying of national liberation activities. Macedonians took an active part in the insurrections of the neighboring peoples. The attempts of the Ottoman Empire at reforms in the social, economic and political system in Macedonia, made under the pressure of the contemporary European Great Powers, did not lead any improvement in the difficult situation.
Ottoman authority - the Macedonian question
Following it's defeat in the 1877-1878 war with Russia and the Threat of San Stefano, the Ottoman Empire's Balkan territories were considerably reduced. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania were proclaimed independent, and Macedonia was annexed to the newly-established Bulgarian state. The revision enacted by the Congress of Berlin held in July 1878, according to which Macedonia remained under authority of the Ottoman Empire, was just as great an injustice towards the Macedonian people as the clause referring to Macedonia in the Threat of San Stefano. By ignoring the real interests and struggle of the Macedonian people for liberation and a state of their own, European diplomacy encouraged the nationalists and expansionists myths of the neighboring Balkan states, and turned the Macedonian Question into a important European political question.